You’ll Never Believe What These Girls Are About To Do In This Waterfall, OMG

If you are a thrill seeker and risk taker, it can sometimes be hard to find the perfect destination to get your adrenaline fill. Some people like jumping out of an airplane, but doing so one too many times could be seen as a bit of a chore. Some people go base jumping, but a close call or two may scare them away from strapping on wingsuits again. Then there are people who feel the need to push it even further. Devil”s Pool is the perfect place for adrenaline junkies who really want to take their thrill-seeking behavior to the extreme.

(source samiam2310)

There”s nothing quite like staring death right in the face, eh? If you wish to take a trip to play in the Devil”s Pool, make sure to update your will and tell your family that you love them. It”s that dangerous.


17 Science Facts That Will Leave You Questioning Everything

If you break out some of these amazing facts, youll most definitely become the life of the party!

There was an asteroid that destroyed a forest in Serbia without ever hitting the ground.


The event is known as the Tunguska Impact and occurred in 1908. The asteroid was travelling around 33,500 miles per hour as it entered the Earths atmosphere and exploded at the height of roughly 28,000 feet. It resulted in a fireball with about 185 Hiroshima bombs worth of energy and destroyed around 800 square miles of Serbian forest. While it never actually touched the ground, it is still classified as an impact.

10 Times Meteors Have Impacted History

10 Times Meteors Have Impacted History

A meteor is an object that falls from outer space into the Earth’s atmosphere. It becomes a meteorite if it survives burning up in the atmosphere and reaches land. While human knowledge of our universe has expanded more in the last century than the millennia before, meteors have both affected and been recorded throughout history. Their sight has always brought awe and occasionally brought danger to their observers.

10Mass Extinction


Photo credit: Wikimedia

Off the coast of the Yucatan Peninsula, deep beneath the depths of the Gulf of Mexico, lie the remains of one of the most important and well-known events involving a meteorite in the history of the entire planet. Known as the Chicxulub Crater, a 125-meter hole is all that remains of the meteor responsible for the largest mass extinction event in history.

Roughly 66 million years ago, a meteorite roughly the size of Staten Island crashed into Earth. The impact was strong enough to start wildfires hundreds of miles away from the site of the crash. So much sulfur, ash, and other debris was flung into the air that it blotted out the Sun. For months, the Earth sat in perpetual darkness and a long, unexpected winter that would change the course of the planet forever. 75 percent of life on the planet (including the dominant species, dinosaurs) died off at this time. Mammals survived this apocalyptic event by being small and warm-blooded. A lack of predators following the meteor strike led to the rise of evolution of all mammals alive today, including humans and Internet list writers.



Photo credit: Wikimedia

Every year, Muslims from all over the world make pilgrimages to the city of Mecca in modern-day Saudi Arabia. In this ancient city resides the Kaaba, the most holy site of the Islamic world. While no one knows quite how old this temple is (many Muslims believe it to have been built by Abraham), a stone that resides in one corner of the structure may hold the key to its ancient significance.

Encased in silver in the eastern corner of the Kaaba is what is only known as the Black Stone. Muslim tradition states that this stone fell from heaven to show Adam and Eve where to build their altar. Due to its significance, tests upon the stone are not possible, but this has not stopped scientists from proposing other sources for its origins. Geological evidence and nearby craters in the region lead many to believe the Black Stone may be an ancient meteorite. It is possible early settlers in the region did in fact witness the stone fall from the skies and believe it to be a message from Allah himself.

8King Tut’s Dagger


Photo credit:

The boy pharaoh King Tut and his untouched burial site has drawn people’s attention and imagination since its discovery in 1922. Three years after his discovery, Tut still had a few secrets hidden up his sleeves. Scientists studying the mummy found two daggers within the young king’s wraps. A gold dagger was found near his abdomen and an iron one near his hip. It was the latter that drew historians’ attention, as iron was extremely rare during the Bronze Age in which King Tut lived, died, and was mummified.

Further studies into the blade’s nickel, iron, and cobalt composition lead most scientists to agree that the blade is of extraterrestrial origin, being crafted from one of 11 meteorites discovered in the Egyptian Kingdom during the time of Tut’s rule. The rarity and value of such a dagger meant that it would most likely have been used ceremonially rather than practically.



Photo credit: Wikimedia

When viewed from above, the medieval German town of Nordlingen appears to be perfectly round. It was one of the only towns in Germany to still have its complete city walls still standing, and the reason for its round shape goes back millions of years before its founding in the ninth century.

What makes Nordlingen unique is that the city sits perfectly in a crater left by a meteor 14.5 million years ago. While the crater is roughly 25 kilometers across, the medieval founders built the walls of the city where the 1-kilometer-long meteorite sat millennia earlier. Remnants of the rock still can still be found literally within the walls of the city.

Up until the 1960s, the common theory was that the town was built in a volcano crater, but in more recent times, microscopic diamonds have been discovered within the walls and cathedral. These diamonds, while too small to be valuable, are remains of the meteor that struck down in the area years before the first humans would enter the area.

France 1492


Photo credit: Wikimedia

Only three months after Columbus set foot in the New World for the first time, a visitor came unexpectedly to visit the French village of Ensisheim. This visitor came in the form of a roughly 120-pound meteorite landing in a nearby field. Mentioned on this site before, the Ensisheim meteorite is the oldest preserved meteorite in the world. Though its impact was only witnessed by a single boy, the meteorite become an instant celebrity overnight.

People came from all over the region to take a piece of the stone for themselves, until church authorities claimed the rock and brought it back and chained it in the Ensisheim Church. Pieces were then given to the emperor and pope. Songs and stories were written about the stone, and it was viewed by many as a sign from God of either His blessing or wrath. Since the 15th century, the meteorite has become a symbol and point of pride for the town of Ensisheim, which it has never left.

5The Milanese Monk
Tortona Italy 1677


Photo credit: Wikimedia

While the people of Ensisheim love their meteor, not all carry such warm feelings toward them. A report published in Tortona, Italy, in 1677 speaks of an unnamed monk who was killed by a meteorite. At St. Mary’s convent, a monk fell dead when struck by something that appeared to come down from the heavens. Many monks in the convent ran to his side to find a hole in his side. As one monk recorded:

“Impelled by curiosity, they enlarged the aperture to examine the interior of it; they saw that it penetrated to the bone, and were much surprised to find at the bottom of the wound a roundish stone which had made it, and had killed this monk in a manner equally terrible and unexpected.”

If this report is to be trusted, it would be the first and only recorded death by meteor in history.

4Mark Twain And Halley’s Comet


Photo credit: NASA

While not a meteorite, as it has never touched down on Earth, Halley’s Comet is worthy of note here due to its close ties to a famous historical figure. The comet is famous for its easy visibility and predictability. After making a tight cut around the Sun and shooting as far off as Neptune, Halley’s Comet appears in the night sky with its distinctive bright tail every 75 or 76 years — once in a lifetime, for many. Famed author Mark Twain was lucky enough to have been on Earth for two of Halley’s orbits, but both times, he was rather preoccupied. The first time it passed, in 1835, he was being born. Twain always felt a personal connection to the comet, stating:

“I came in with Halley’s Comet . . . It is coming again . . . And I expect to go out with it . . . The Almighty has said, no doubt: ‘Now here are these two unaccountable freaks; they came in together, they must go out together.’ “

While he had no way of knowing how accurate his prediction was, sure enough, as the comet made its way past again in April 1910, Mark Twain quietly passed from this planet with it.

3Tunguska Event


Photo credit: Wikimedia

The Tunguska Event, which took place June 30, 1908, in Siberia, is the most well documented meteor impact event in modern times, as well as one of the most mysterious. Around 7:00 AM on the unassuming summer morning, windows shattered over 35 miles away, trees were blown on their side, hundreds of local reindeer died, and countless witnesses both saw light and felt heat from the blast as far away as Asia. The impact packed a punch as strong as 185 Hiroshima bombs. The only thing missing was the meteorite. Officials would not find a reason behind the explosion for almost 20 years.

While there were luckily no human casualties due its remote location, many locals were still reluctant to talk about it, believing that it was punishment from the Slavic god Ogdy. By following the path of blown-over trees, the mystery only grew when scientists found that ground zero did not contain a crater. At the center of the blast site, trees still stood but had been completely scorched of any branches or bark.

While there is still debate over the exact cause of the blast, NASA and other organizations agree a meteor approximately 120 feet across most likely entered the atmosphere above Siberia and detonated. The meteor is believed to have burned up before reaching the ground, explaining the lack of crater or evidence of meteor.

2Ann Hodges


Photo credit: National Geographic

November 30, 1954, was not a very exciting day for 34-year-old Ann Hodges of Sylacauga, Alabama. It was so uneventful in fact that she chose to take a nap on her couch, a decision that shook things up considerably. As she dozed, an 8.5-pound rock came rocketing through her ceiling, bouncing off a radio and hitting her in the thigh.

Awaking confused and in pain, Hodges found a meteorite lying in the middle of her living room. While luckily only suffering some bruising, she became the first person in modern history to be struck by a meteorite. Hodges quickly found herself a minor celebrity, and her situation became even more well known during a year-long legal battle over ownership of the meteorite. It had been taken away by the local authorities, which led to the question of whether extraterrestrial objects belonged to the government in which they land, or if they fell under the age-old law of finders keepers. The case was settled out of court with the Hodges walking away with the rock, which was later donated to a museum.

1Sochi Olympics


Photo credit: Alex Alishevskikh

In what may be the best documented and recorded meteor event in history, a 20-meter wide meteor exploded over Chelyabinsk, Russia, in February 2013. The blast was the equivalent of 500 kilotons of TNT, knocking people off their feet, collapsing roofs, and shattering windows over 30 miles away. Over 1,200 people were hospitalized due to the explosion, the majority due to injuries from broken glass. Around four to six tons of meteorite fragments landed in the region, the largest chunk landing in a nearby lake.

When the Russian government recovered the rock from the lake’s depths for further study, they decided to take advantage of the meteor’s strike occurring so closely to the upcoming Winter Olympics they would be hosting. 10 of the gold medals given during the ceremony contained pieces of the Chelyabinsk meteorite in their center, giving the planet’s top athletes an award distinctly out of this world.

Henry Cain currently resides in California where he spends his free time writing and exploring.


Discovery Channel Is Kicking Reality TV Out, Embracing Science, And Teaching About Climate Change

Do you remember the good old days, when the Discovery Channel had educational and scientific documentaries on it? Are you disappointed with scripted reality shows? If so then you are in luck, because Discovery is shaking things up in a great way.

John Hoffman, the new boss of documentaries at the network, says that documentary programming at Discovery, Animal Planet and Science Channel, are going to undergo a dramatic shift.

Im also part of a group decision, throughout the company, to bring a lot more science. To elevate the scientists in the films.

I am the change. Hoffman says about the upcoming improvements to the network. He also says climate change is real and calls it the most important story of our time.

Many of the informative channels on cable TV have fallen into the reality show trap over the years, and quality of programming has suffered as a result. Hoffman wants to focus more on educational programming and ways that were compromising the environment, and ways we will hopefully save it. We can all guess how Fox News will feel about this.

Discovery had been under a lot of criticism of late, due to showing lavishly produced pseudo-science and docu-tainment pieces, instead of the science-based programming we all used to enjoy. The boldly progressive step by Discovery is in stark contrast to when earlier this month, National Geographic was bought by Rupert Murdoch and revamped into a Fox News magazine.


The first big step on this new path was the acquisition of Racing Extinction, a film from Academy Award-winning director, Louie Psihoyos. At the heart of the film is a detailed and frank explanation of climate change and its devastating effects on the planet. If this is an indicator of things to come, it appears that Discovery is going to have a brilliant future secured for it.

Watch the trailer for Racing Extinction:

Featured image via Wikicommons

! Trumps Middle East Business Ties Exposed As He Calls For Ban On Muslims In U.S. (VIDEO)

  • WATCH: Bob Dole Skewers Trump And Cruz Over Extremism, While Calling Obama A Very Good Man (VIDEO)

    • nowhereman

      Reality shows are anything but real. I think they designed to support the GOPTP by keeping most of us as stupid as possible so they can get elected. Reality shows in general were mainly a vehicle to break the writers union. Notice how we havent heard about any writers strikes lately?

    • zerosumgame0005

      I sure hope Pitbulls and Parolees survives! Tia RULZ!

    Top 10 Unusual Islands


    This is a list of islands that are somehow unusual or notable. The ranking from ten to one is somewhat arbitrary, in my opinion, since each island is unique in its own way and ratings can’t really apply (it would be kind of like asking which piece of music is better, “Stairway to Heaven” or “Eine kleine Nachtmusik”). So this one is really more like a grocery list than a “countdown from ten to one” list. The islands listed were chosen in part for their obscurity, which is why (for example) Easter Island is not on the list — everyone has heard of that one!



    The westernmost of the eight major Hawaiian islands, Ni’ihau (pronounced NEE-ee-how) is distinct from the other seven in that it is completely privately owned, having been purchased by Elizabeth Sinclair from the Kingdom of Hawaii in 1864. Visitors are seldom permitted, hence the island’s nickname, “The Forbidden Isle”, although in recent years the island has begun to allow very limited tourism (primarily safaris). Ni’ihau has a population of about 130 people, who speak Hawai’ian as their native language (although English is also spoken).

    Attu Island

    Attu-July-27-1943 Navytown

    Another westernmost island, this time the westernmost in the Aleutian Islands chain in Alaska. Although Attu Island is the Aleutians’ westernmost island, it actually lies in the Eastern hemisphere. Attu has a population of twenty, all of whom live and work in Attu Station, a United States Coast Guard LORAN (Long Range Aid to Navigation) facility. Apart from being the last island in the 1,200 mile (1,900 kilometer) long Aleutian Islands chain, Attu is also distinct in that it is the location of the only land-based conflict on American soil in all of World War II.

    Monuriki Island

    Monuriki Island Mamanucas Fiji

    Monuriki is a small, uninhabited island in the Mamanuca Island group in Fiji. Monuriki would not ordinarily be noteworthy for any particular reason, but it came into the spotlight when it was used as the primary filming location in the 2000 Tom Hanks film, “Cast Away”, about a man whose plane crashes and who, subsequently, ends up living on the island for four years. In the movie, the island is completely isolated, although in reality, there are several other islands within a few miles of it, including Tavua, with a population of some 2,400 people. Monuriki has now become a popular tourist destination due to its appearance in the film.

    Navassa Island

    Navassa Satellite1

    Navassa is an uninhabited Caribbean island about thirty miles west of Haiti and ninety miles south of Guantanamo Bay in Cuba. Its entire coastline consists of steep cliffs, making boat landings impossible. The United States annexed it in 1857, and spent the next few decades mining its extensive guano deposits. The island is now classified as a nature reserve, requiring United States government permission (which is rarely granted) to enter. Navassa is also one of the few United States territorial disputes — it is also claimed by Haiti.



    Spitsbergen is the largest of the Svalbard islands, north of Scandinavia. A Norwegian territory, it is home to the town of Longyearbyen, one of the world’s most northerly permanent settlements. As such, Spitsbergen contains a good deal of “world’s most northerlies”, most northerly church and most northerly airport being among them. Due to the danger of polar bears, whenever one travels anywhere on Spitsbergen outside of Longyearbyen, one is required by law to carry a rifle. Spitsbergen is also the location of the Svalbard Global Seed Vault, where a variety of plant seeds are stored for safekeeping to preserve biodiversity in case of any kind of large-scale disaster.

    Palmyra Atoll

    Palmyra Atoll

    Palmyra is actually a collection of small islets, located roughly halfway between Hawaii and Samoa. The largest, Cooper Island, is privately owned and administered by The Nature Conservancy. The rest is owned by the United States federal government and is administered by its Fish and Wildlife Service. Palmyra is staffed by a small group of government scientists and Nature Conservancy volunteers for preservation and research. In 1974, Palmyra was the location of a double murder, later detailed in Vincent Bugliosi’s best selling true crime book, “And the Sea Will Tell”.

    Howland Island


    Howland lies about halfway between Hawaii and Australia, and is only about fifty miles north of the equator. Like many small Pacific islands, it was claimed by the United States and mined for its guano deposits. There was also an attempt at colonization, but it was interrupted by World War II, when Howland was attacked by Japanese bombers the day after Pearl Harbor was bombed, killing two of the colonists and requiring the other two to be evacuated. No further attempt at colonization was made after the war. Howland is now a nature preserve and is probably best known for being the stop on Amelia Earhart’s around-the-world flight at which she never arrived.

    Pitcairn Island

    Pitcairn Island

    Pitcairn is the only inhabited island of the four in the Pitcairn Islands group. It is the last remaining British overseas territory in the Pacific. Pitcairn Island, with only fifty or so inhabitants, is the least populous and most remote jurisdiction in the world (being some 1300 miles, or 2100 kilometers, west of Chile). All of its inhabitants are descendants of the mutineers from the HMS Bounty and the Polynesians who accompanied them. The burned wreckage of the Bounty is still visible under the waters of Bounty Bay. Pitcairn makes what is supposedly some of the best honey in the world, so much so that even the Queen has praised its virtues. If you decide to buy some through their web site, though, be prepared for a long wait. Pitcairn has no airport, and Bounty Bay is small and shallow, so the island is visited and supplied only occasionally. Mail deliveries can be months apart. (I ordered some honey myself about two or three months ago and am told that it will still be about another month before it even gets off the island.) Pitcairn is unique in quite a few other ways as well, so much so that I had a hard time deciding which ones to include and which to leave out!

    Bouvet Island

    Bouvet Island

    Bouvet is a 19 square mile (49 square kilometer) volcanic island in the South Atlantic Ocean, about 1550 miles (2500 kilometers) south-southwest of South Africa. It is almost completely covered with ice. Most of the coastline consists of very steep cliffs, making landings difficult. Bouvet was originally a British territory, but Britain waived its claim and ceded the island to Norway, which maintains it today as a nature preserve. Bouvet has never been inhabited and almost certainly never will be, but it still has its own top-level Internet domain name, .bv, which is unused. Bouvet’s claim to fame is that it is the most remote island in the world. The nearest land, Queen Maud Land in Antarctica, lies some 1,100 miles (1,750 kilometers) to the south. Adventure travelers and amateur radio operators (using the island-specific prefix 3Y) therefore like to travel there.

    North Sentinel Island

    Article-1022822-016B043900000578-706 468X350

    North Sentinel Island lies some 20 miles (32 kilometers) west of Smith Island, in the Bay of Bengal. It is about 28 square miles (72 square kilometers) and is completely forested, with the exception of the thin strips of beach that encircle most of it. It is otherwise unremarkable, except that it is populated by one of the few remaining “uncontacted peoples” in the world. The Sentinelese are highly xenophobic and resist virtually all attempts at contact, frequently firing arrows at boats and helicopters that come too close to the island (sometimes killing the “intruders). Between their active isolationism and the difficulty of observing the island from the air, almost nothing is known of the Sentinelese — their language, culture, and even an accurate estimation of their numbers are all unknown. North Sentinel Island is technically part of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands Union Territory, but in practice, the local government has said that they intend to leave the island to its inhabitants, making it de facto autonomous.


    Here Are 8 Real-Life Doomsday Devices That May Destroy Us All.

    Do you know how many nuclear bombs exist today? How about the countries that control them? No?

    There are only small fringe groups that are concerned about nuclear warfare in our country. People raise their eyebrows when they hear about how those groups have well-stocked nuclear bomb shelters. Since the decline of the Cold War, the fear of nuclear death isn”t exactly widespread.

    You might need a reminder that there are a few of insanely powerful weapons that exist … and in the wrong hands? they could destroy us all.

    1. Neutron bomb.

    Neutron bomb.

    Samuel Cohen, the inventor of the neutron bomb, once described it as a “discriminate weapon” as it kills all the people in its blast radius without decimating the buildings. It is the high-energy of the neurons that causes the killing blow, not the heat or nuclear fallout, allowing enemies to take the facilities of a city, without dealing with the pesky enemies that inhabit it.

    2. The Predator and Predator B (aka The Reaper).

    The Predator and Predator B (aka The Reaper).

    The scary thing about drones are how removed it”s pilots are from actual combat. One man thousands of miles away can kill an entire city with the same ease as pressing the accelerate button on Mario Kart 64.

    3. R-36 ICBM

    R-36 ICBM

    The scariest thing about these ballistic missiles is that they were never designed for accuracy. To compensate for the fact that it normally misses its target, the Russians upped its nuclear potency to up to 38 warheads.

    4. The Airborne Laser/Boeing YAL-1.

    The Airborne Laser/Boeing YAL-1.

    It”s essentially just a plane with a giant laser attached to the front but that”s terrifying sounding enough for me. It can hit it”s target (usually ballistic weapons) from hundreds of miles away. And lasers, guys! LASERS!

    5. Biological Warfare.

    Biological Warfare.

    The only thing worse than instantly wiping out all life, is inflicting a Chimera virus upon and watch the suffering slowly grow and decay.

    6. Tsar Bomb.

    Tsar Bomb.

    The most powerful nuclear weapon ever detonated. It”s blast radius is 3.5 kilometers and is approximately the height of the Eiffel tower.

    7. The Trident II D5 SLBM.

    The Trident II D5 SLBM.

    These guys are a little less powerful than the R-36″s, but a way more accurate and can strategically be shot from anywhere from submarines due to the fact that they don”t ignite until after they don”t ignite until they leave the water.

    8. Nimitz Class Aircraft Carrier

    Nimitz Class Aircraft Carrier

    Each of these babies has enough fuel to not need a refill for 23 years. They each can hold up to 130 aircraft and are basically designed to wage war against a country singlehandedly.

    Most of these weapons are in the hands of American forces… but the technology isn”t exactly new. There could be lots of powerful weapons hiding in bunkers all over the world. (Good luck sleeping tonight!)


    This Is What Technically Happens When A Jellyfish Stings You. Yikes.

    If youve ever been stung by a jellyfish or seen the look on someones face after theyve gotten to close to the free-floating sea creatures, youre well aware of how much it hurts. Its not very hard to figure out. Something thats quite a bit more difficult to understand is how the gelatinous beings can be the sources of such pain. Some people think that there is some kind of electricity (or some dark magic, maybe) involved.

    Well, as it turns out, getting stung by a jellyfish involves being pricked by tiny, venomous organelles called nemacysts. If those words alone arent enough to make the hair on your neck stand up, seeing them in action likely will be.

    Take a look at this microscopic footage of a jellyfish sting that was shot with a high-speed camera. Its actually pretty cool to see, as long as you dont have any plans to go to the beach in the near future.

    (via It”s Okay To Be Smart, H/T io9)

    If you thought that was bad, imagine getting stung by one of these jellyfish.

    The 5 Deadliest Jellyfish in the World

    5. Sea Nettle (Chrysaora)

    5. Sea Nettle (Chrysaora)

    4. Lions Mane Jellyfish (Cyanea capillata)

    4. Lions Mane Jellyfish (Cyanea capillata)

    3. Portuguese Man o War (Physalia physalis)

    3. Portuguese Man o War (Physalia physalis)

    2. Irukandji Jellyfish (Carukia barnesi)

    2. Irukandji Jellyfish (Carukia barnesi)

    1. Box Jellyfish (Chironex fleckeri)

    1. Box Jellyfish (Chironex fleckeri)

    (via Planet Deadly)

    Hm, I think Ill stick to the pool for the rest of the summer. Actually, I might as well play it safe and avoid water altogether. Does rubbing hand sanitizer all over your body count as a shower?

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    10 Common Misconceptions About Space

    A lot of people have some pretty big misconceptions about space. To be fair, very few of us have ever been, there’s a lot more to study before anybody really knows what’s actually going on up there, and movies tend to give us the complete wrong idea. In the interests of setting things straight, here are 10 common misconceptions about space, and the truth behind them.

    10People Explode

    Perhaps one of the oldest and most common misconceptions is that we would explode if exposed unprotected to the vacuum of space. The logic here is that, since there is no pressure, we would simply bloat and pop, like a balloon that flew too high. But it may shock you to learn that humans are far more resilient than balloons. Jut like we don’t pop when jabbed with a needle, we wouldn’t pop in space—our bodies are just too tough for it. We would bloat a bit, that much is true. But our bones, skin, and other organs aren’t fragile enough to give way and burst unless something is actively tearing them.

    In fact, several people have already been exposed to extremely low pressure environments when working on space missions. In 1966, one man was testing out a space suit when it decompressed at 120,000 feet. He lost consciousness, but did not explode, and made a full recovery.

    9People Freeze


    This is one misconception mostly perpetuated by movies. Many films set in space will have a scene where one character finds themselves outside the ship without a suit. They quickly begin to freeze and, unless they manage to get back inside, turn into an icicle and float away. The reality is the complete opposite. You wouldn’t freeze if you were exposed to space, you’d overheat.

    We probably all remember those diagrams of convection currents in science class. Water over a heat source will heat up, rise to the top, cool down, sink to the bottom, and repeat. This happens because the water at the top transfers its heat to the air around it, which causes the water to contract, thus becoming more dense, and sinking. In space, as the name suggests, there is nothing to transfer your heat to, making cooling down enough to freeze impossible. So your body will continue to work away, generating heat as it does. Of course, before you became uncomfortably hot, you’d be dead.

    8Your Blood Would Boil

    space walk 1

    This myth has nothing do do with the fact that your body would overheat if you were exposed to empty space. Instead it comes from the fact that the boiling point of any liquid has a direct relationship with the pressure of its environment. The higher the pressure, the higher the boiling point and vice versa. This is because it’s easier for a liquid to turn to gas when there’s less pressure compressing it into its liquid state. So it’s not a huge leap of logic for people to assume that in space, where there is no pressure, liquids would boil, including your blood.

    The Armstrong line is when atmospheric pressure is so low that liquids can boil at body temperature. The problem here is that while exposed liquids would boil in space, your blood wouldn’t. However, bodily fluids such as the those in your eyes and mouth would. In fact, the man who decompressed at 120,000 feet said the saliva boiled right off his tongue. The “boiling” wouldn’t actually be searing hot, it’d be more like they were drying out. But your blood, unlike your saliva, is inside a closed system, and still has your veins to keep it compressed in the liquid state. Even though you’d be inside a vacuum, the fact that your blood is locked inside your body means it won’t turn into gas and float away.

    7The Sun


    The Sun is one of the first things you study when learning about space. It’s a big fiery ball that all the planets spin around, and it’s just far enough away that it keeps us warm, but doesn’t cause us all to burst into flames. Given that we could never have existed were it not for the heat and light given off by the Sun, it’s surprising that so many of us have a pretty basic misconception about it: that it’s on fire. If you’ve ever burnt yourself on a flame then congratulations, you’ve had more fire on you than the sun ever has or will. In reality, the sun is a big ball of gas that gives off light and heat energy through nuclear fusion, which occurs when two hydrogen atoms combine and form helium. So the Sun does give off light and heat, but there is no conventional fire involved at all. It is simply a giant, warm glow.

    6Black Holes Are Funnel-Shaped


    This is another common misconception that can be put down to the portrayal of black holes in movies and cartoons. Obviously black holes are essentially “invisible,” but for the sake of the audience they’re made to look like ominous whirlpools of doom. They’re shown as almost 2D, funnel-like objects, with an entrance to nothingness on one side only. In real life however, this representation could not be further form the truth. A real black hole is actually a sphere. There’s no one side that will pull you in, it’s just like a planet with a lot of gravity. If you pass by it too close on any side, you’ll get pulled in.



    We’ve all seen clips of spacecraft re-entering the Earth’s atmosphere at some point. It’s a rough ride, and things tend to get extremely hot on the surface of the craft. Most of us will have been told that this is because of the friction between the craft and the atmosphere, which is an explanation that seems to make sense: A spacecraft is surrounded by nothing, and then suddenly shooting through an atmosphere at unfathomable speed. Of course things are going to get hot.

    Well the truth is that friction has less than one percent to do with the searing heat associated with re-entry. While it is a contributing factor, the vast majority of the heat comes from compression. As the craft hurtles back down to Earth, the air it passes through is compressed and collects around the craft. This is known as the bow shock. The air in the bow shock is trapped by the spacecraft now pushing it around. The speed of this causes the air to heat up, allowing no time for decompression or cooling. While some of that heat is transferred to the craft and absorbed by the heat shield, the dramatic re-entry we see is mostly the air around the craft, and is exactly what scientists hope to see.

    4Comet Tails


    Picture a comet for a moment. Odds are most of you pictured a chunk of ice shooting through space with a stream of light or fire trailing behind it because of its speed. Well it may come as a surprise that the way a comet tail trails has nothing to do with the direction in which the comet is moving. That’s because, unlike with meteors, the tail of a comet is not the result of friction or break up. It’s caused by heat and solar wind, which melt the ice and send dust particles flying in the opposite direction. For this reason, the tail of a comet does not drag behind it, but will always point away from the Sun.



    Since the demotion of Pluto, Mercury has been our smallest planet. It’s also the closest planet to the Sun, so it would be natural to assume that it’s our system’s hottest planet. Well, not only is that untrue, but Mercury can actually get pretty darn cold. First off, at its hottest, Mercury is about 801 degrees Fahrenheit (427 Celsius). If this was the constant temperature for the entire planet all the time, it would still be cooler than Venus, which is 860 degrees Fahrenheit (460 Celsius). The reason Venus is so much hotter despite being 49,889,664 kilometers (31 million miles) further away is that Venus has an atmosphere of CO2 to trap in the heat, whereas Mercury has nothing.

    But another reason Mercury can get so cold, apart from the lack of atmosphere, is to do with its rotation and orbit. A complete orbit of the sun for Mercury takes about 88 Earth days, while complete rotation of the planet is about 58 Earth days. This means that night lasts 58 days on the the planet, giving the temperature plenty of time to drop down to a cool -279 degrees Fahrenheit (-173 Celsius).



    Everybody knows about the Curiosity rover on Mars and the important scientific research it’s conducting. But people seem to have forgotten about many of the other probes we’ve sent out over the years. The Opportunity rover landed on Mars in 2003, and was given a 90 day life expectancy. Almost 10 years later, it’s still roving.

    Most people seem to think that we’ve never managed to send a probe to any planet other than Mars. Of course, we’ve sent all sorts of satellites into orbit, but landing on a planet is vastly more complex. Still, it’s actually a lot more common than you think. Between 1970 and 1984, the USSR successfully landed eight probes on the surface of Venus. The difference here is that the atmosphere on Venus is considerably more hostile, and even if a rover managed to land it would soon be cooked and crushed. The longest a rover lasted was about two hours, much longer than anticipated.

    If we move a little further out into space, we’ll reach Jupiter. Now Jupiter is even trickier for rovers than Mars or Venus, seeing as it’s made almost entirely of gas, which isn’t ideal for driving on. But that didn’t stop scientists from sending in a probe. In 1989, the Galileo spacecraft was sent to examine Jupiter and its moons, which it did for the next 14 years. Six years into its mission, it dropped a probe down to Jupiter, which beamed information back about its composition. Although another craft is on its way to Jupiter, this remains the only probe to enter its atmosphere, and the information it gathered is invaluable. It sent completely unexpected measurements, forcing scientists to totally reevaluate how they thought planets formed and worked.


    This one is so seemingly obvious that many people will have a hard time believing it’s not true. Satellites, spacecraft, astronauts, and so on do not experience zero-gravity. True zero-gravity, or micro-gravity, barely exists anywhere in space, and certainly no human has ever experienced it. Most people are under the impression that astronauts and everything else in spacecrafts are floating around because they’ve gone so far away from Earth that they are no longer affected by its gravitational pull, when actually it’s the presence of gravity that causes floating.

    When orbiting Earth, or any other celestial body large enough to have significant gravity, an object is actually falling. But since the Earth is constantly moving, things like spacecrafts don’t crash into it. The Earth’s gravity is attempting to pull the craft down onto its surface, but Earth keeps moving, so the craft keeps falling. This perpetual fall is what results in the illusion of zero-gravity. The astronauts are also falling inside the craft, but since they’re moving at the same speed, it looks like they’re floating. The same phenomenon could be experienced in a falling elevator or plane. In fact, the weightless scenes for the movie Apollo 13 were filmed in a falling plane used to train astronauts. The plane climbs up to 30,000 feet before going into a near-freefall, which allows for 23 seconds of “zero-gravity.” Although it lasts for less than a minute, it’s exactly what real astronauts experience in space.


    These Commonly Held Beliefs Are Just Straight Up Wrong.

    We know a lot about the world nowadays. But how many things have we been told that we don”t question? (Answer: Lots.)

    Luckily for us, some people questioned some of the world”s most commonly held beliefs. The found out these facts were simply and categorically wrong. There is either no evidence to support them or they have been proven false. So, the next time someone tells you these things, tell them they are wrong and to read a book.

    1. Columbus never reached any of the areas now known as The United States of America. He mainly visited the Caribbean Islands, which are their own independent countries.

    Columbus never reached any of the areas now known as The United States of America. He mainly visited the Caribbean Islands, which are their own independent countries.

    2. Waking a sleepwalker will not cause them any harm. They may wake up confused, but it actually is more dangerous to leave them sleepwalking, where they can trip and fall over something.

    Waking a sleepwalker will not cause them any harm. They may wake up confused, but it actually is more dangerous to leave them sleepwalking, where they can trip and fall over something.

    3. Houseflies actually have a lifespan of 20-30 days and not 24 hours.

    Houseflies actually have a lifespan of 20-30 days and not 24 hours.

    4. George Washington did not have wooden teeth. His dentures were made of gold, hippopotamus ivory, lead, animal teeth (including horse and donkey teeth), and probably human teeth from slaves.

    George Washington did not have wooden teeth. His dentures were made of gold, hippopotamus ivory, lead, animal teeth (including horse and donkey teeth), and probably human teeth from slaves.

    5. Goldfish have memories much longer than a few seconds, some have memories that last months.

    Goldfish have memories much longer than a few seconds, some have memories that last months.

    6. Bats are not blind. While majority of bats use echolocation to navigate themselves, they all have eyes and have sight.

    Bats are not blind. While majority of bats use echolocation to navigate themselves, they all have eyes and have sight.

    7. Eating less than an hour before swimming does not increase the risk of experiencing muscle cramps or drowning.

    Eating less than an hour before swimming does not increase the risk of experiencing muscle cramps or drowning.

    8. The signing of the United States Declaration of Independence did not occur on July 4, 1776. The final language of the document was approved by the Second Continental Congress on that date and it was printed and distributed on July 4 and 5, but the actual signing occurred on August 2, 1776.

    The signing of the United States Declaration of Independence did not occur on July 4, 1776. The final language of the document was approved by the Second Continental Congress on that date and it was printed and distributed on July 4 and 5, but the actual signing occurred on August 2, 1776.

    9. Medieval Europeans did not believe Earth was flat; in fact, from the time of the ancient Greek philosophers Plato and Aristotle on, belief in a spherical Earth remained almost universal among European intellectuals. As a result, Christopher Columbus”s efforts to obtain support for his voyages were hampered not by belief in a flat Earth but by correct worries that the East Indies were farther than he realized.

    Medieval Europeans did not believe Earth was flat; in fact, from the time of the ancient Greek philosophers Plato and Aristotle on, belief in a spherical Earth remained almost universal among European intellectuals. As a result, Christopher Columbus

    10. Eggs can actually be balanced on any day of the year, not just the equinoxes.

    Eggs can actually be balanced on any day of the year, not just the equinoxes.

    11. The Great Wall of China is actually very hard to see from space. Shuttle astronaut Jay Apt has been quoted as saying that “the Great Wall is almost invisible from only 180 miles up.

    The Great Wall of China is actually very hard to see from space. Shuttle astronaut Jay Apt has been quoted as saying that

    12. Fortune cookies actually were invented in and came to the U.S. from Japan, not China.

    Fortune cookies actually were invented in and came to the U.S. from Japan, not China.

    13. There is no evidence that vikings wore horns on their helmets.

    There is no evidence that vikings wore horns on their helmets.

    14. Women accused of being witches in the Salem Witch Trials were never burned at the stake. They either received life in prison or were hanged.

    Women accused of being witches in the Salem Witch Trials were never burned at the stake. They either received life in prison or were hanged.

    15. The architectural feature called a vomitorium was the entranceway through which crowds entered and exited a stadium, not a special room used for purging food during meals.

    The architectural feature called a vomitorium was the entranceway through which crowds entered and exited a stadium, not a special room used for purging food during meals.

    16. When Orson Welles read The War Of The Worlds over the radio, there was no widespread panic. Relatively few people were even listening to the broadcast. Newspapers reported that it cause panic to discredit radio as advertising competition.

    When Orson Welles read The War Of The Worlds over the radio, there was no widespread panic. Relatively few people were even listening to the broadcast. Newspapers reported that it cause panic to discredit radio as advertising competition.

    Make sure you know all of these the next time you find yourself in an argument with a cocky smarty pants. You”ll then take the smarty pants crown from them.


    10 Disasters That Sparked New Safety Regulations

    10 Disasters That Sparked New Safety Regulations

    Disasters involving disease, fire, maritime catastrophes, mine explosions, airplane crashes, oil spills, and earthquakes have led to the losses of millions of dollars and hundreds, even millions, of lives. Man-made cataclysms are sometimes preventable. On occasion, they occur because of violations of existing safety laws or regulations. Other times, they are due to carelessness. Natural disasters may not be avoidable, but their ill effects sometimes can be reduced.

    Although disasters are horrific, they often expose weaknesses in the safety laws and regulations designed to protect people from the property loss, injury, and death that such events typically cause. Sometimes, disasters also indicate a need for new ordinances. Often, such events motivate officials to take administrative, legislative, and judicial actions that are long overdue.

    Here are 10 disasters that sparked new safety laws and regulations.

    10 Black Death


    Photo credit:

    In October 1347, a dozen Genoese ships, having sailed through the Black Sea, docked at Messina, Sicily. Most of the sailors aboard were dead. The few who had lived were deathly ill. From their boils, their illness took its name: the “Black Death.” Although authorities ordered the “death ships” to return to sea, the Black Death killed over 20 million people in Europe — one-third of its population — over the next five years.

    Italian cities were the first to combat the Black Death with new safety laws and regulations. Venice barred ships suspected of carrying the plague from its ports. The city subjected other ships and their passengers to quarantine for 30 (later 40) days. The dead were interred in isolated graveyards in accordance with regulations specifying procedures for collection, conveyance, and burial. Pistoia restricted “imports, exports, and travel,” and Milan established a “pesthouse” outside the city gates for infected individuals.

    9 Triangle Shirtwaist Factory Fire


    Photo credit:

    On March 25, 1911, 145 people died in one of the worst factory fires of all time. Worse yet, their deaths could have been prevented. Doors inside the factory were locked. As a result of the fire at the Triangle Shirtwaist Factory, new laws and regulations were instituted to ensure workers’ safety.

    The Manhattan factory, a sweatshop operated by teenage immigrant girls who didn’t speak English, ran 12 hours each day, producing women’s blouses, or “shirtwaists,” as they were known at the time. The only ways out were a narrow fire escape and an elevator that held 12 people.

    During the fire, the elevator collapsed. One of the two stairways inside the building was locked. The other ended at a door that opened only inward. To save money, the owners, Max Blanck and Isaac Harris, had neglected to install a sprinkler system and had ignored other safety laws and regulations.

    As a result of the disaster, the Sullivan-Hoey Fire Prevention Law was passed. So was other legislation and regulations. New state laws mandated “fire sprinklers, fire drills, and unlocked and outward-swinging doors.”

    Among other provisions, additional laws required the removal of fire hazards such as rubbish, the use of fireproof waste receptacles, the protection of gas jets, the prohibition of smoking in the factory, the presence of fire escapes and exits, and the assignment of building occupancy limits.

    8 Titanic Sinking


    Photo credit: Willy Stower

    On April 15, 1912, the unthinkable happened: The “unsinkable” RMS Titanic sank after striking an iceberg on its maiden voyage across the North Atlantic. Of the 2,214 people aboard, 1,517 died. It had been believed that the ship was safer than any vessel that had ever been to sea. It was made of steel. Its 16 compartments were watertight. It had its own “waterworks” and power plant. It was equipped with two radios.

    Human error was at fault, and the disaster was preventable. The ship’s “captain ignored 20-plus warnings about icebergs,” continuing to operate after night had fallen when icebergs are nearly impossible to see. The ship had been provided with too few lifeboats for the passengers and crew aboard the ship.

    The SS California was anchored 25 kilometers (15 mi) away, “waiting for daylight to proceed” while the Titanic sank. The California observed the Titanic‘s “distress rockets,” but the ship made no rescue attempt. The crew assumed that the rockets had been fired merely to signal the Titanic‘s “presence, as ships often did then.” Had the California responded, “more passengers could have been saved from the doomed ship, which sank in four hours.”

    After the Titanic disaster, North Atlantic Ocean “ice patrols became more frequent and rigorous.” Crews were required to man onboard radios “at all times,” and “lifeboat safety drills” were mandated. In 1914, the International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea replaced “a patchwork of national conventions with one global maritime safety standard.”

    In addition, rockets could be fired only to indicate distress, and ships were redesigned with double hulls and taller bulkheads in some cases to ensure that they were watertight.

    7 Fires In Spencer And Remsen, Iowa


    Photo credit: Parker Museum archives via Spencer Daily Reporter

    Recently, a group of Iowans tried to get the state legislature to legalize fireworks. But it seems that lawmakers learned their lessons from the 1931 Spencer inferno and the 1936 Remsen conflagration. Both were five-alarm fires. The one in Spencer started when someone dropped a sparkler into a store’s fireworks display. In minutes, 25 businesses had gone “up in smoke” and another 50 were damaged. The fire covered 2.5 downtown blocks.

    Perhaps caused by carelessness with fireworks, the Remsen fire ignited and destroyed a garage, two city blocks, “grain elevators, [a] baseball field, [a] residential neighborhood,” a hotel, a tavern, a pool hall, a pharmacy, a cafe, and a lumber company. Local volunteers, bolstered by firefighters from a half-dozen nearby cities and 150 National Guard troops, fought the Remsen inferno and the wind and high temperatures that “hindered” them. The fire was so intense that it melted the wheels of rail cars. Losses totaled $600,000 (over $10 million today).

    Two days later, the Remsen City Council outlawed fireworks. In 1938, the state also prohibited their sale anywhere in Iowa. In general, the only exceptions are 1.4G consumer “novelty fireworks,” such as some sparklers, snakes, and caps that “produce low-level aerial effects.” Some cities also allow “cones, parachutes, and fountains.”

    6 Hartford Hospital Fire


    Photo credit: npr

    On December 8, 1961, Hartford Hospital in Connecticut caught fire when someone flicked a cigarette into a trash chute. The chute ran through all 13 floors of the hospital. Sixteen people were killed, including “patients, visitors, two staff members, a nurse, and a resident doctor.”

    As a result of the disaster, hospital safety procedures and building codes changed. Trash chutes must be equipped with sprinklers. Doors and other barriers must resist fires for one hour. Draperies and curtains must be fire-resistant. Additional doors were installed to “create refuge areas.”

    Smoking was first limited and then banned. “A fire safety committee [reviewed] procedures and safety training.” Since the Hartford Hospital fire, other hospitals have adopted identical or similar laws, regulations, and policies. As a result, hospitals are much safer. None has suffered the damage and loss of life involved in the Hartford Hospital fire.

    5 Farmington Mine And Other Mine Disasters


    On November 20, 1968, 78 coal miners in West Virginia lost their lives in the fires and explosions inside Consolidation Coal’s Farmington No. 9 Mine. Their bodies were not recovered until 10 months later. Although the “ignition source” of the initial explosion was never determined, investigators said that “contributing factors were inadequate methane testing and ventilation along with the presence of high levels of methane gas and coal dust.”

    The disaster prompted the passing of the Coal Mine Safety and Health Act of 1969, federal legislation that “standardized coal mine health and safety practices.” The law “increased federal enforcement powers in coal mines, set monetary penalties for violations, and established criminal punishments for knowing and willful violations.”

    Other mine disasters have also led to significant safety laws. In 2006, after coal mine disasters killed 14 people in West Virginia, then-governor Joe Manchin signed legislation requiring improved communications, underground supplies of oxygen, and quicker emergency responses.

    After an explosion that killed 12 people at the Sago Mine that same year, President George W. Bush signed the federal Mine Improvement and New Emergency Response (MINER) Act, which increased the lowest “fines for mine safety violations from $60 to $2,000 or $4,000, while ‘flagrant’ violations can draw a fine of as much as $220,000,” up from a previous $60,000.

    In addition, the MINER Act authorizes the government to close mines that are “pattern” violators. The Sago Mine probably would have qualified as a pattern violator. In 2005, it was “cited 208 times and fined more than $24,000 last year for various violations, including 96 that were considered likely to cause injury or illness.”

    4 Nigerian Air Disasters


    Photo credit: Naijalog

    Nigeria has a long track record of air crashes. It dates from November 20, 1969, when Nigeria Airways BAC VC10 crash-landed and killed 87 people aboard to October 29, 2006, when a Nigerian Aviation Development Corporation Boeing 737 “with 104 on board” crashed “minutes after takeoff from Abuja’s airport during a rainstorm.” The 2006 crash killed “all but six,” including Nigeria’s Sunni Muslim “spiritual leader,” His Eminence, the Sultan of Sokoto, Alhaji Muhammadu Maccido.

    Attributing the fatal crashes to “political interference and corruption” that allowed airlines to thwart safety, Nigeria’s then-president Olusegun Obasanjo signed new laws to define safety violations, improve safety inspections, establish ministerial powers during emergencies, penalize offenders, compensate travelers, better regulate pilot licensing, and empower the Nigerian Civil Aviation Authority.

    3 BP Oil Spill


    Photo via Wikimedia

    In April 2010, the Gulf of Mexico oil spill (aka the British Petroleum (BP) oil spill), one of the worst environmental disasters ever, was caused by a leak in an undersea pipe after the explosion and sinking of the Deepwater Horizon oil rig about 67 kilometers (42 mi) off the Louisiana coastline. The disaster resulted in 11 fatalities and the release of five million barrels of oil into the Gulf of Mexico until the pipe was repaired 87 days later.

    The environmental consequences were severe. Oil slicks formed on the surface of the water, oil collected on the ocean floor, and oil washed ashore. Coral, pelicans, turtles, seabirds, and other marine life were devastated by the effects of the spill.

    After a massive cleanup by BP and government agencies, the US Department of the Interior proposed in 2015 that oil companies be required to use “stronger blowout preventers.” These devices close an offshore well if there’s a breach in the pipeline. The failure of a blowout preventer triggered the Gulf oil spill when the explosion occurred at the Deepwater Horizon rig.

    The Interior Department has also mandated the use of stronger well casings and introduced regulations regarding the use of cement to reinforce wells.

    2 Earthquake In Tainan, Taiwan


    Photo credit: ScoutT7

    In February 2016, an earthquake struck Tainan, Taiwan, that measured 6.4 on the Richter scale. It toppled the 16-story Wei-kuan apartment complex, which killed 115 of the 117 people who died in the disaster. Shoddy construction is said to have caused the building to fall: “Foam and tin cans had been used as filling in concrete structures.” There were other “flaws” in the construction, too. Steel reinforcement bars were “inadequate.”

    In the aftermath of the disaster, new laws were enacted in the form of amendments to the Building Act to “enhance quake-resistance standards,” improve the quality of construction, and improve building inspections. The government also subsidized the earthquake-resistance retrofitting of older buildings.

    The families of those who lost their lives in the apartment building’s collapse received NT$3 million (Taiwanese dollars) in compensation. The injured received between NT$200,000 and NT$750,000.

    1 Oil Train Accidents


    Photo credit: Curt Bemson (AP) via Pittsburgh Post-Gazette

    With increasing numbers of oil transports by train in both the United States and Canada, accidents have increased. In May 2015, an oil train ignited after derailing in North Dakota. The fire forced a nearby town to evacuate. Fortunately, there were no injuries. This and other accidents involving oil trains have sparked new regulations by which the US Department of Transportation hopes to promote safety.

    Some of the accidents have involved fatalities. In July 2013, 47 people were killed in an oil train accident in Quebec. Between March 2013 and January 2014, 10 such accidents resulted in oil spills. Many oil tank cars date from 1964 and were used originally to transport “nonflammable hazardous liquids like liquid fertilizers.”

    The regulations require an improved tank car standard, the retrofitting of certain older tank cars based on an assessment of risk, and a “new braking standard” to minimize the “severity of an accident and the ‘pileup effect.’ ” The US and Canada worked closely with one another in establishing the new regulations.

    Gary Pullman lives south of Area 51, which, according to his family and friends, explains “a lot.” His 2016 urban fantasy novel, A Whole World Full of Hurt, will be published by The Wild Rose Press. An instructor at the University of Nevada, Las Vegas, he writes several blogs, one of which is bit Lit: Short Stories Anesthetized, Euthanized, and Sterilized at